tv 1943 Film Japanese Relocation CSPAN February 1, 2015 9:44pm-9:56pm EST
of the evacuees adjusting to new communities, getting along with their employers, fellow workers, and neighbors, and finding satisfaction in becoming self-supporting once more. the americanism of the great majority of america's japanese finds its highest expression in the thousands who are in the united states army. almost half of them are in a japanese-american combat team, created by order of the secretary of war early in 1943. some of the volunteers came from hawaii, some from the eastern part of united states mainland where there was no mass evacuation. hundreds of them volunteered while they were in relocation centers. volunteered to fight against the militarism and oppression of japan and germany. they know what they're fighting against, and they know what they are fighting for, their country, and for the american ideals part of their upbringing -- democracy, freedom, equality of opportunity, regardless of race,
creed, or ancestry. ♪ >> the civil liberties act of 1988 provided reparations of $20,000 to each surviving detainee, formally acknowledged that executive order 9066 was unjust, and apologized on behalf of the american people. >> each week american history tv's reel america brings you archival films that help tell the story of the 20th century. on february 19, 1942, president reagan roosevelt issued executive order 9066, leading to
forced relocation and internment of over 100,000 people of japanese ancestry. japanese relocation from 1943, a 10 minute film posted by the -- hosted and narrated by the brother of dwight eisenhower. mr. eisenhower presents arguments in favor of the forced internment policy, while scenes of the removal process and internment camps are shown. ♪
>> when the japanese attacked pearl harbor, our west coast became a potential combat zone. we knew that some among the japanese were potentially dangerous. no one knew what would happen among this concentrated population if japanese forces should try to invade our shores. military authorities determined that all of them, citizens and aliens alike, would have to move. this picture tells how the mass migration was accomplished. neither the army or the war relocation authority relished the idea from taking families from their homes, so the military and civilian agencies
chose to have real consideration for the people involved. consideration was given to sabotage and espionage. there is san francisco. there were more japanese in los angeles than an any other area. in san pedro, houses and hotels occupied exclusively by japanese were within a stone's throw of an naval airbases, shipyards and oil wells. japanese fishermen had every opportunity to watch the movement of our ship. farmers were living close to vital aircraft. all japanese were required to move from critical areas such as these. this limited evacuation was a solution to only part of the problem.
the larger problem, the uncertainty of what would happen among these people in case of a japanese invasion still remained. that is why the commanding general of the western defense command determined that all japanese within the coastal areas should move inland. the army began mapping evacuation areas and encouraged the japanese to leave voluntarily. the trouble for the voluntary evacuees -- the program was quickly put on a plan of protected basis. thereafter, the japanese citizens and aliens made plans notices were posted. all persons of japanese dissent -- descent were required to register. they gathered in their own churches and schools and they cheerfully handled the paperwork involved in the enormous migration. they made for preliminary medical examinations.
government agencies helped them in a hundred ways. they helped the evacuees find tenants for their farms. they helped businessman lease, sell, or store their property. this aid was financed by the government. it often involved financial sacrifice by the evacuees. now the actual migration got underway. the army provided fleets of vans to transport belongings, buses to move the people to centers. evacuees cooperated wholeheartedly. the many loyal among them felt this was a sacrifice they could make on behalf of america's war effort. in small towns as well as large, up and on the coast, the moving continued. behind them, they left shops homes they had occupied for many years.
their fishing fleets were impounded and left under guard. they were taken to areas where they had built assembly camps. they lived here until new communities could be completed on federally owned lands in the interior. this racetrack became a community of 17,000 persons. the army provided housing and plenty of healthful, nourishing food for all. the residents of the new community set about developing a way of life as nearly as normal as possible. they held church services, protestant, catholic, buddhist.
they issued their own newspaper, organized schools, and some made camouflage nets for the united states army. meanwhile, in arizona, utah, colorado, wyoming, and elsewhere, quarters were being built in which they would have an opportunity to work, more space in which to live. when word came that these new homes were ready, the final movement began. at each relocation center, evacuees were met by an advanced contingent who had arrived earlier and acted as guides. naturally, the newcomers looked about with some curiosity. they were in a new area, on land that was raw, untamed, and full
of opportunity. there they would build schools educate their children, reclaim the desert. their own physicians took precautions to guard against epidemics. they opened advanced americanization classes for college students, who would in turn instruct other groups. they made a rough beginning of self-government. for a while, the army would guard the outer limits of each area. life within was largely up to the japanese themselves. they immediately saw the need for developing civic leaders. at weekly community meetings citations were given to the leaders who had worked most diligently. special emphasis was put on the health and care of these american children of japanese dissent.
-- descent. the parents, most of whom are american citizens, and the grandparents immediately wanted to go to work. they built plants that would add to our rubber supply. at parker, they undertook the irrigation of fertile desert lands. meanwhile, in areas away from the coast and under appropriate safeguards, many were permitted to enter private employment, particularly to work in sugarbeet fields where labor was badly needed. this picture is actually a prologue to a story that is yet to be told.
the full story will begin to unfold when the raw lands of the desert turn green, when all adult hands are productive. it will be fully told only when circumstances permit the loyal american citizens once again to enjoy the freedom we in this country cherish, and when the disloyal have left this country for good. in the meantime, we are setting a standard for the rest of the world in the treatment of people who may have loyalties to an enemy nation. we are protecting ourselves without violating the principles of christian decency. we hope most earnestly that our example will influence the axis powers in their treatment of americans who fall into their hands. ♪ >> the civil liberties act of 1988, signed by president